Kenapa Ganti Ukuran Ring Velg/Ban, Akurasi Speedometer Berubah, Mungkin Ini Jawabannya..

Masbro/mbaksist, sebelumnya mohon maaf jika artikel ini repost. Penulis merasa ternyata masih banyak juga yang bingung kenapa setiap ganti ukuran ban atau ring velg, akurasi speedometer pun berubah.

Agar mudah, artikel ini dibagi menjadi 3 bagian :

  • apa yang sesungguhnya diukur oleh speedometer konvensional (yang bukan menggunakan GPS) dan definisi-definisi
  • bagaimana cara mengukur/menghitungnya
  • perubahan apa saja yang berpengaruh pada akurasi speedometer

Pengukuran Speedometer Konvensional dan Definisi

Speedometer konvensional tidak mengukur pada sisi luar jalan yang menapak pada aspal, melainkan mengukur kecepatan sudut dari wheel/roda, pada poros roda, atau pada transmisi. Ada 2 tipe pengukuran, mekanik dan elektrik.

  • Mekanis : adalah perangkat pengukur kecepatan yang dihubungkan langsung dengan roda depan ataupun transmisi dengan menggunakan suatu kabel yang ikut berputar saat kendaraan bergerak, gerakan berputar ini kemudian diubah untuk menggerakkan jarum kecepatan
  • Elektrik : adalah pengukur kecepatan yang bekerja atas dasar sensor yang ditempatkan di poros penggerak kendaraan yang medeteksi jumlah putaran poros untuk selanjutnya data dikirim ke speedometer dengan prinsip arus Eddy yang menggerakkan jarum kecepatan ataupun menunjukkan kecepatan secara digital.

Kedua tipe pengukuran ini menghitung hal yang sama, yaitu kecepatan sudut atau disebut juga kecepatan anguler. Apa itu kecepatan sudut mari kita simak ulasan berikut.

Kecepatan Sudut atau Kecepatan Anguler

Kecepatan sudut atau anguler adalah, berapa sudut yang telah ditempuh sebuah benda (yang bergerak melingkar) dalam tiap satuan waktu. Satuannya adalah radian per detik, dengan rumus

Sedangkan kecepatan linier dari sebuah gerak melingkar adalah :

Kombinasi 2 rumus diatas di dapatkan

V = w . r

Untuk lebih memahaminya, kita simak gambar berikut ini :

skema penjelasan kecepatan sudut

Penjelasan :

  • A adalah titip pusat lingkaran, dalam hal ini titik tengah roda/ban
  • B adalah jari-jari lingkaran atau dalam aplikasi nyatanya ukuran ring velg ditambah tebal ban
  • C adalah titik awal pengukuran linier pada garis lingkaran (luar), dalam hal ini titik pengukuran pada ujung ban yang menempel pada aspal.
  • D adalah titik akhir pengukuran linier pada garis lingkaran (luar) dalam hal ini titik akhir pengukuran pada ujung ban yang menempel pada aspal
  • jarak tempuh adalah garis linier dari C hingga D
  • c dan d adalah titik pengukuran speedo yg ada pada garis lurus A dan C atau A dan D.
  • Kecepatan sudut c-d dan C-D adalah sama, sedangkan kecepatan liniernya berbeda.
  • Satu putaran penuh lingkaran adalah 2π radian (baca dua fi radian).
  • Kecepatan sudut adalah berapa besar sudut yang telah ditempuh dari c ke d, atau dari C ke D, tiap satuan waktu.

Bagaimana Cara Mengukur/Melakukan Penghitungannya (dalam Speedometer)

Sekarang mari kita analisa.

Speedo meter tidak memungkinkan diletakkan pada ujung luar ban (mengukur berapa C ke D),  untuk itu pengukuran dilakukan dengan menghitung brapa kecepatan linier dari c ke d, didapat kecepatan sudutnya sekian radian/detik. Biasanya dihitung satu putaran penuh dibutuhkan waktu berapa detik.

Sebelumnya, untuk sederhananya kita asumsikan dengan pengukuran speedometer dilakukan pada as roda depan, bukan pada transmisi, karena akan njelimet lagi hitungannya.

Sekarang kita telah mendapatkan (katakanlah) dua komponen untuk dikalkulasi berapa sebenarnya kecepatan riil, yaitu kecepatan sudut, dan jari-jari lingkaran dari poros roda hingga ujung ban yang menempel ke aspal, maka kecepatan riil-nya adalah :

Kecepatan riil (V) = kecepatan sudut  x  jari-jari

Perubahan Apa Saja Yang Mempengaruhi Akurasi Speedometer (konvensional) ?

Nah..dari rumus terakhir diatas kita sudah bisa memperkirakan, apa saja yang berpengaruh pada akurasi speedometer. Yaitu komponen jari-jari.

Jika kita asumsikan speedometer standar dan kondisi standar motor sudah akurat, maka memperpendek jarak jari-jari dari poros roda ke ujung ban, akan berakibat penampakan di speedometer lebih kencang dari kondisi riil, sebaliknya dengan menambah jarak/memperpanjang jari-jari, akan berakibat speedometer lebih lambat dari kondisi riil.

Dan dua hal utama yang berpengaruh terhadap jari-jari adalah, penggantian ukuran velg dan ukuran ketebalan ban. Contoh ban 130/70 dan 130/80 tentu akan menghasilkan penampakan berbeda pada speedometer dengan kecepatan riil yang sama. Tentu dengan asumsi merknya sama, karena tidak menutup kemungkinan ukuran sama merk berbeda, kondisi riilnya bisa berbeda.

Satu hal lagi yang sangat berpengaruh selain panjang jari-jari, adalah perubahan posisi dimana sensor speedometer diletakkan, lebih mendekat ke poros atau menjauh poros, akan berpengaruh pada penghitungan.

Kesimpulan

  • Speedo konvensional tidak mengukur kecepatan riil secara langsung, melainkan kecepatan sudutnya (kecepatan anguler)
  • Dua hal yang paling  berpengaruh pada akurasi speedometer adalah panjang jari-jari lingkaran, dimana poros roda sebagai titik tengah lingkaran, dan lingkaran luar ban sebagai garis luar lingkaran, dan posisi sensor speedometer diletakkan.
  • perubahan ukuran velg dan ketebalan ban, akan berpengaruh pada akurasi speedometer

Semoga dengan artikel ini, menambah sedikit wawasan, dan mohon maaf jika ini termasuk reposting, dan mohon koreksinya jika memang ada kesalahan.

Semoga bermanfaat

Salam

Jika ada saran, kritik atau masukan, bisa menghubungi penulis di email atau YM : nice_guy2208@yahoo.com

About boerhunt

Hanya sekedar ingin menuangkan corat coret, punya hobby olahraga, otomotif, IT world, nature, tapi blog ini lebih byk penulis dedikasikan untuk otomotif terutama roda dua
This entry was posted in mobil, Otomotif, Roda Dua and tagged , , . Bookmark the permalink.

75 Responses to Kenapa Ganti Ukuran Ring Velg/Ban, Akurasi Speedometer Berubah, Mungkin Ini Jawabannya..

  1. dwidhaswara says:

    Wow! Ini artikel pencerdasan otomotif😀

  2. makanya kalo mau top speed tinggi, cukup kecilkan ukuran rim velg..

  3. tarzankecil says:

    Wah artikel jenius, klo ban dpn/pelk diganti kecil jarum spedo dpt mencapai top speed lebh tinggi tp kecepatan nyata/rill biasa2 aja, bgt pula yg tipe digital klo gigi tarik depan diperkecil top speed dan rpm gampang tercapai dan lebih tinggi, tp top speed nyata/riil jg biasa2 aja alias dibohongin speedometer,

  4. tarzankecil says:

    Artikel jenius, yg analog ganti rim lebih kecil, yg digital ganti gg tarik dpn lbh kecil, pencapaian top speed dan rpm jadi lebih tinggi, ha3x dibohongin speedometer, pdhl top speed riil/nyata biasa2 aja

  5. basri says:

    Pantesan udah jalan rata-rata di speedo 60km/h eh jarak 50 km dicapai 1,5 jam

  6. andhi_125 says:

    meski bingung karena banyak rumus:mrgreen: ending-nya jadi mudeng🙂
    tengkiu dah share…

  7. ya2kzzz says:

    asli bingung fisika mas bro..:mrgreen:

  8. Aa Ikhwan says:

    sip..jadi tambah tau ane sekrang😀.
    thx infonya ya😀

  9. makanya video top speed di youtube jangan di telan mentah2…

  10. umarabuihsan says:

    masbro, kl penempatan sensor saya kira gak ngaruh. misal di 20cm dr poros dgn 30cm dr poros, kecepatan sudutnya sama….cniiw

    hitung2an saya:

    http://www.umarabuihsan.wordpress.com/2011/05/01/kawin-silang-artikel-limit-rpm-dan-kecepatan-puncak-kendaraan-kita/

    • boerhunt says:

      kalo itungan itu kan dari putaran rpm, rasio gear sampe terakhir perbandingan kecepatan linear ban, beda cara ngitung kang, hasilnya lebih akurat..dan obyek yg diitung jg dr mesin sampe ban belakang, bukan ban depan, sementara kebanyakan speedo ngukurnya di ban depan (katanya sih ada yg ngukurnya bukan di roda depan..cmiiw). jadi tetap ada pengaruh dengan jarak sensor ke lingkar luar ban (depan) dengan keakuratan speedo.. yg diukur adalah jarak posisi sensor ke lingkar luar ban, jika jarak ini berubah misalnya ganti ukuran velg, maka akan ada perubahan jarak ini tadi, hasilnya speedo jadi berubah, bisa jadi lebih akurat atau kebalikannya..ada 2 pendekatan, posisi sensor diubah juga agar jaraknya tetap ke lingkar luan ban, tp ini sulit menempatkannya, nah cara kedua dengan mengkalibrasi speedometer..CMIIW

  11. nobon anak pulsar - sekarang anak pio says:

    Solusinya berarti kalo mo ganti Ban, jangan sampe Jauh dari Diameter Aslinya….Contoh, Ane beli Pio 2013… Ban Depan Ori 80/100 R18..kan cungkring tuh… Belom keluar Plat ane udah ganti sama yg lebih tebel, tapi ke tinggian sama, yaitu 100/80 R 18. artinya Lebar ban 100,tebAL BAN 80… KALO AGAN2 GANTI 90/90 R18, Lebar 90 Tebal 81… Kalo memang pertimbangannya kestabilan di High speed, diturunin ke R 17, silakan dihitung deh, R18 dan R 17 bedanya 25,4 mm, artinya cari ban yg setebal mungkin…spt 110/90 R17 atw 100/100 R 17…. Cara yg paling bener yaa Kalibrasi..Jadi kita gak bakal ngeributin Topspeed dengan kondisi Speedometer yang sudah ngawur… IMHO….. btw… ini baru Tips bagus .. ada dasar sientifiknya…

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